The Oxford Solid State Basics

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This lecture series constitutes a first undergraduate course in solid state physics delivered in an engaging and entertaining manner by Professor Steven H. Simon of Oxford University. Standard topics such as crystal structure, reciprocal space, free electrons, band theory, phonons, and magnetism are covered. The sequence of the lectures matches that of the book \"The Oxford Solid State Basics\" (OUP, 2013).

Solid-state physics is the study of rigid matter, or solids, through methods such as quantum mechanics, crystallography, electromagnetism, and metallurgy. It is the largest branch of condensed matter physics. Solid-state physics studies how the large-scale properties of solid materials result from their atomic-scale properties. Thus, solid-state physics forms a theoretical basis of materials science. It also has direct applications, for example in the technology of transistors and semiconductors.

The physical properties of solids have been common subjects of scientific inquiry for centuries, but a separate field going by the name of solid-state physics did not emerge until the 1940s, in particular with the establishment of the Division of Solid State Physics (DSSP) within the American Physical Society. The DSSP catered to industrial physicists, and solid-state physics became associated with the technological applications made possible by research on solids. By the early 1960s, the DSSP was the largest division of the American Physical Society.[1][2]

Large communities of solid state physicists also emerged in Europe after World War II, in particular in England, Germany, and the Soviet Union.[3] In the United States and Europe, solid state became a prominent field through its investigations into semiconductors, superconductivity, nuclear magnetic resonance, and diverse other phenomena. During the early Cold War, research in solid state physics was often not restricted to solids, which led some physicists in the 1970s and 1980s to found the field of condensed matter physics, which organized around common techniques used to investigate solids, liquids, plasmas, and other complex matter.[1] Today, solid-state physics is broadly considered to be the subfield of condensed matter physics, often referred to as hard condensed matter, that focuses on the properties of solids with regular crystal lattices.

Properties of materials such as electrical conduction and heat capacity are investigated by solid state physics. An early model of electrical conduction was the Drude model, which applied kinetic theory to the electrons in a solid. By assuming that the material contains immobile positive ions and an \"electron gas\" of classical, non-interacting electrons, the Drude model was able to explain electrical and thermal conductivity and the Hall effect in metals, although it greatly overestimated the electronic heat capacity.

The nearly free electron model rewrites the Schrödinger equation for the case of a periodic potential. The solutions in this case are known as Bloch states. Since Bloch's theorem applies only to periodic potentials, and since unceasing random movements of atoms in a crystal disrupt periodicity, this use of Bloch's theorem is only an approximation, but it has proven to be a tremendously valuable approximation, without which most solid-state physics analysis would be intractable. Deviations from periodicity are treated by quantum mechanical perturbation theory.

Kazuo Yamamoto, Yasutoshi Iriyama, Tsukasa Hirayama, Operando observations of solid-state electrochemical reactions in Li-ion batteries by spatially resolved TEM EELS and electron holography, Microscopy, Volume 66, Issue 2, April 2017, Page 154,

The model-free Kissinger and Friedman methods were used to preliminarily estimate the kinetic parameters of the solid-state reaction processes in the thin multilayer (Cu/a-Si)30 films. A detailed procedure for analyzing the data obtained by DSC is described in [29].

Presented below is a comparative table with the estimates of the kinetic parameters of different stages of the solid-state reaction in the Cu/a-Si system, obtained as a result of the analysis of the electron diffraction and DSC data by the Kissinger method, including the analysis of the DSC data by the Friedman method (Table 6).

The estimates of the kinetic parameters obtained by the Kissinger method based on the DSC data (see Table 6) were used as initial conditions in the model description of the observed multi-stage process of solid-state transformation by the method of nonlinear multivariate regression [40] using the software Netzsch Thermokinetics 3.

Classification of the states of matter. The solid crystal state: Crystal structures: Bravais lattices;unit The crystal symmetry; a structural view of crystal symmetry: bottom-up crystallography in molecular crystals; mathematical representation of crystal symmetry; reciprocal lattice; Bloch functions. 781b155fdc